From mountain-shaped apartment blocks to the centre of braised chicken reinventing itself as Solar Valley, Chinas second( and third) tier cities are hiring big-name architects to get them noticed

From egg-shaped concert halls to skyscrapers reminiscent of big pairs of pants, Chinas top cities are famously full of curious monuments to architectural ambition. But as land costs in the main metropolises have shot into the stratosphere, developers have been scrambling to buy up plots in the countrys second and third-tier cities, spawning a new generation of delirious schemes in the provinces. President Xi Jinping may have issued a directive last year proscribing oversized, xenocentric, weird builds, but many of these schemes were already well under way; his diktat has proved to be no obstacle to mayoral hubris yet.

From Harbin City of Music to Dezhou Solar Valley, provincial capitals are branding themselves as themed enclaves of culture and industry to attract inward investment, and commissioning scores of bold buildings to match. Even where “were not receiving” demand, city bureaucrats are relentlessly selling off land for development, hawking plots as the primary sort of revenues accounting for 80% of municipal revenues in some cases. In the last two months alone, 50 Chinese cities received a total of 453 bn yuan( 54 bn) from land auctions, a 73% increase on last year, and its the provincial capitals that are leading the way.

At the same time, Xis national culture drive has seen countless museums, concert hall and opera houses spring up across the country, often used as sweeteners for land deals, conceived as the pearls at the centre of glistening mixed-used visions( that sometimes never arrive ). Culture, said Xi, is the prerequisite of the great renaissance of the Chinese people, but it has also proved to be a powerful lubricant for ever more real estate speculation even if the production of content to fill these great dormitories cant quite keep abreast with the insatiable house boom.
From mountain-shaped apartment blocks to cavernous libraries, heres a glimpse of whats emerging in the regions.

Fake Hills, Beihai

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A render of how the Fake Hills would look. Illustration: MAD architects

Forming an 800 metre-long cliff-face along the coast of the southern port city of Beihai, the Fake Hills housing block is the work of Ma Yansong, Chinas homegrown conjuror of sinuous, globular kinds whose practise is appropriately named MAD. Having studied at Yale and worked with Zaha Hadid in London, where he nourished his penchant for blobs, Ma has spent the past decades dreaming up improbable mountain-shaped megastructures across the country.

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Less scenic mountain and more lumpen collision of colossal cruise-liners The first stage of construction on Fake Hills has been completed. Photo: MAD

As it rises and falls, the undulating roofline of Fake Hills forms terraces for badminton and tennis tribunals, as well as a garden and swimming pool. Sadly the overall effect is less scenic mountain range than a lumpen collision of colossal cruise-liners.

Greenland Tower, Chengdu

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Greenland Tower, Chengdu. The house harks back to the crystalline dreamings of early 20 th-century German architect Bruno Taut. Illustration: Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture

A crystalline spire rising 468 metres above the 18 million-strong metropolis of Chengdu, the Greenland Tower will be the tallest building in southwestern China, standing as a sharply chiselled monument to the countrys( and by some countings the worlds) largest property developer, Greenland Holding. It is designed by Chicago-based Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill, designers of Dubais Burj Khalifa, who say the faceted shaft is a reference to the unique ice mountain topography of the region. It harks back to the crystalline dreamings of early 20 th-century German architect Bruno Taut, who imagined a dazzling glass city crown to celebrate socialism and agriculture; whether Sichuans farmers will be welcomed into the penthouse sky garden remains to be seen.

Sun-Moon mansion, Dezhou

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A challenger to Silicon Valley the Sun-Moon mansion of Solar Valley, Dezhou. Photograph: Alamy

Once known as a centre of braised chicken production, the city of Dezhou in the north-eastern province of Shandong now brands itself as Solar Valley, a renewable energy centre are aiming to rival Californias Silicon Valley. At its heart is the Sun-Moon mansion, a vast fan-shaped office house powered by an arc of solar panels on its roof. It is the brainchild of Huang Ming, aka Chinas sun king, an oil industry technologist turned solar energy tycoon who heads the Himin Solar Energy Group, the worlds biggest producer of solar water heaters as well as purveyor of sun-warmed lavatory seats and solar-powered Tibetan prayer wheels.

Harbin Opera House

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Harbin Opera House, with the St Petersburg of the east in the background. Photo: View Pictures/ Rex/ Shutterstock

Nicknamed the St Petersburg of the east, the far northern city of Harbin has long had a thriving cultural scene as a gateway to Russia and beyond. In the 1920 s, manners from Paris and Moscow arrived here before they reached Shanghai, and it was home to the countrys first symphony orchestra, made up of mostly Russian musicians.

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Inside Harbin Opera House. Photo: View Pictures/ Rex/ Shutterstock

Declared city of music in 2010, Harbin has recently pumped millions into a shining new concert hall by Arata Isozaki, a gargantuan neo-classical conservatory and an 80,000 sq metre whipped meringue of an opera house by MAD. Shaped like a pair of snowy dunes, up which guests can climb on snaking paths, the building contains a sinuous timber-lined auditorium designed as an eroded block of wood.

Tianjin Binhai library

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Tianjin Binhai library. Illustration: MVRDV

Due to open this summer in the sprawling port city of Tianjin, this space-age library by Dutch designers MVRDV is imagined as a gaping cave of books, carved out from within an oblong glass block. The shelves form a terraced landscape of seating, wrapping around a giant mirrored sphere auditorium that nestles in the middle of the space like a pearl in an oyster.

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Inside the space-age Tianjin Binhai library. Illustration: MVRDV

Along with a new theater, congress centre and a science and technology museum by Bernard Tschumi, the building forms part of a new cultural quarter for the city, itself being swallowed into the planned Beijing-Tianjin mega-region population 130 million, thats more than Japan .

Huaguoyuan Towers, Guiyang

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Arups twin towers are almost complete. Illustration: LWK& Partners

Nowhere in China is the disparity between economic reality and architectural ambition more stark than in Guiyang, capital of rural Guizhou, the most severe province in the country, which has the fifth most skyscraper plans of any Chinese city. The twin 335 -metre towers of the Huaguoyuan growth, by Arup, are now almost complete, standing as the centrepiece of a new mixed-use office, retail and entertainment complex, while SOM is busy conjuring the even higher Cultural Plaza Tower, a 521 -metre glass spear that will soar above a new riverfront world of shopping malls and theatres. It has the glitz and gloss of any other Chinese citys new central business district, but as Knight Franks David Ji points out: It will be hard for a city like Guiyang to find quality renters to fill the space.

Yubei agricultural park, Chongqing

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Will Alsops Yubei agricultural park. Illustration: Will Alsop

Architectural funster Will Alsop may eventually have found his calling in the supercharged furnace of Chinas second-tier cities booming leisure economy, crafting a number of fantastical dreamworlds from his new satellite studio in Chongqing where he is busy constructing a new cultural quarter around his own office, with a eatery, bar and distillery. He is also plotting an enormous agricultural leisure park in Yubei, 20 miles north of the city, designed to cater to the new middle classes nascent appreciation of the countryside, a place hitherto associated with peasants and poverty. The rolling scenery is likely to be dotted with cocoon-like treehouses, a flower-shaped hotel and a big lagoon covered by an LED-screen canopy, so guests can enjoy projected blue skies despite the smog.

Zendai Himalayas centre, Nanjing

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A limestone mountain range: Zendai Himalayas Centre, Nanjing. Illustration: www.i-mad.com

Erupting across six city blocks like a limestone mountain range, the Zendai Himalayas Centre will be Mas most literal interpretation yet of his doctrine of fusing architecture and nature. Taking inspiration from the traditional style of shanshui landscape brush paint( literally entailing mountain-water ), the 560,000 sq metre complex is designed to look as if it has been eroded by millennia of wind and water , not thrown up overnight by an army of migrant labourers. Once again, Ma appears to be forgetting that elegant feathery brushstrokes dont often translate well into lumps of glass and steel. It is one of many such green-fingered strategies in Nanjing, including Stefano Boeris horizontal forest towers and the Sifang art park, where Steven Holl, SANAA, David Adjaye and others have constructed pavilions in a rolled landscape as another decoy for a luxury real estate project.

Huawei campus, Dongguan

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