Here is a riddle: How is tennis pro Maria Sharapova like a Cold War Soviet super-soldier? The answer is that both took the cardiac drug meldonium.

The difference, though, is that the 69 -year-old Latvian chemist who fabricated the drug says only the super-soldiers were his intended use case. Ivar Kalvins, chair of the scientific board of the Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis( which, yes, sounds like the name of a place youre trying to clear in a first-person shooter, but OK) says he started working on the drug in people for utilize by Soviet troops in Afghanistan. If the soldiers are to operate in the mountains, theres a lack of oxygen, Kalvins says. The style to safeguard against damage is by employing Mildronate.

And indeed, Mildronate–thats the brand name for meldonium–gave fighting recruits super-powers. Users had extra endurance and oxygen-carrying capability that let them carry heavy backpacks over high-altitude mountain ranges and desert plateau during the Soviet Unions invasion of the rugged nation from 1979 to 1989. In fact, Kalvins was a finalist for the European Inventor Award in 2015( from the European Patent Office) for his is currently working on the drug.

During the Soviet era, according to Kalvins, the Latvian firm Grendiks shipped hundreds of metric tons of Mildronate to the Russian army. There were very many who use it, he says.

All well and good, but in January the World Anti-Doping Agency said athletes shouldnt be among them. The agency banned it in light of a 2015 analyze that find 2.2 percentage of athletes tested positive for the stuff.

Kalvins says the ban is literally international crimes. Its a violation of human rights, he says. The sportsmen should be able to protect their health. We are living in an era of evidence-based medicine, so there are not any other new data supporting the ban. He calls the prohibition sudden and a surprise.

So was Sharapova trying to get super-powered endurance or treat a heart condition, as she claimed on Monday? Its true that athletes from Russia and the former Soviet countries are having a particularly hard time obeying WADAs rules on drug use, and that meldonium seems especially popular with athletes from that region. Also, Grendiks says the appropriate course of therapy for a heart condition is four to six weeks , not the 10 years that Sharapova says she used it.

Grindeks spokeswoman Ilze Gailite says Mildronate is a safe, effective drug used to combat various heart conditions and diabetes. There have been no clinical analyses scientific evidence that acute or chronic utilize of meldonium increases the athlete's physical ability. Any suggestions to include meldonium in the proscribed list have no scientific basis and are not justified, Gailite writes in an email. We strongly believe that meldonium should not be considered as doping but an effective medicine which is widely used in clinical practise and it should not be included in the Prohibited list.

WADA disagrees, plainly. Nobody there would comment, but in a statement Tuesday the agency said it banned meldonium” because of evidence of its utilize by athletes with the intent of enhancing performance. In other words, if you use it to enhance performance, its a performance enhancer, and thats a big nyet-nyet .

Heres another riddle: How are Maria Sharapova and Soviet super-soldiers like Russian velocity skaters? Take a guess. Three of those champion skaters have tested positive for meldonium utilize. The Associated Press reported Wednesday from Moscow that Russian ice skating officials said the champs are innocent, the victims of sabotage by jealous teammates who spiked their urine samples. The speed-skating association has hired British lawyers to argue their case.

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